We examined 112 active shooter incidents at K-12 Schools from 1985-Present in which shots were fired.  These incidents occurred during school hours or during a school-sponsored event after hours. An active shooter is an individual actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a populated area.

ON AVERAGE 

There is a school shooting every 8 school days
The attacks lasts 8 minutes.

Someone is shot every 60 seconds.

EVERY 8 SCHOOL DAYS 

2018 – 24  Incidents – 35 Killed, 17 Injured = 1 every 8 school days
2019 – 25 Incidents – 8 Killed, 43 Injured = 1 every 7.2 school days

Source: Education Week. Annual tracking of shootings on K-12 school property or school bus resulting in firearm-related injuries or deaths.
Parameters: A firearm was discharge; any individual, other than the perpetrator, had a bullet wound as a result; occurred while school is in session or during a school sponsored event. 

THE ATTACK LASTS 8 MINUTES

The average duration of incidents (without hostages) = 8 minutes
During that time, someone is shot every 60 seconds on average. 

Source: Riedman, David, and Desmond O’Neill. “CHDS – K-12 School Shooting Database.” Center for Homeland Defense and Security www.chds.us/ssdb
Incident durations not included in the source material was further researched by the NSSPA. The duration of the incidents studied are an approximation based upon individual analysis and research.

SHOOTER INFORMATION

General
Only One Shooter – 95%        
Two Shooters – 5%
Committed/Attempted Suicide = 25%
Average Age = 19

Affiliation With School
Student or Former Student – 83%
Student – 67% 
Former Student – 17%
No relation – 10%
Unknown – 3%
Teacher – 2%
Relationship with staff – 1%
Staff member – 1%

Gender
Male – 98%
Female – 1%
Male & Female – 1%

Race
White – 65%
Unknown – 20%
African American – 7%
Other – 4%
American Indian – 3%
Asian – 1%

Type of Weapon
Handgun – 42%
Combination of 
different weapons – 21%
Rifle – 14%
Shotgun – 13%
Multiple Handguns – 7%
Unknown – 1%

Shooters Action After Shots Fired
Subdued / Apprehended – 34% 
Suicide or Attempt – 21% 
Fled – 20% 
Immediately Surrendered – 15%
Barricaded – 10% 
Unknown – 1% 

Bullying
Known Bullying – 30%
Not Bullied – 54%
Unknown – 16%

Pre-planned Attack
No – 43%
Yes – 52%

VICTIM INFORMATION

Random Victims – 60%
Male Victims – 32%
Female Victims – 7%
Male and Female Victims – 42%

Victim Affiliation With School
Student – 38%
Multiple Victim Types – 26%
No Victims – 14%
Teacher – 9%
Staff – 8%
No Relation – 2%
SRO – 1%

Targeted Victim(s)
Targeted Victim(s) – 38%
No Targeted Victim(s) – 50%
Unknown – 12%

SURVIVOR INFORMATION

Fighting Back
Percentage of attacks stopped by students and/or staff fighting back – 21%
Average duration of attack when fighting back – 3 minutes (8 minutes without fighting back)
One person is shot every 90 seconds (60 seconds without fighting back)

Percentage of Survivors Who Fought Back:
Teachers – 50%
Staff – 20%
Principal or Asst. Principal – 20%
Students – 7%
Citizen – 3%

SCHOOL INFORMATION

School Type
High School – 60% 
Middle School – 15%  
Elementary School – 10% 
Junior High School – 6%  
Other – 3% 
Jr. / Sr. High School – 2%
6-12 – 2% 
K-12 – 2%

Location
Inside Building – 80% 
Outside on school property – 20% 

Location Within Building
Hallways – 24% 
Classrooms – 21%
Cafeteria – 13% 
Hallway & Classroom – 5%
Office – 5%
Entry Points – 2%      
Bathroom – 2% 
Gymnasium – 2%   
Band Room – 1% 
Entry Point & Hallway & Classroom – 1% 
Locker Room – 1% 
Bathroom & Hallway – 1% 
Cafeteria & Hallway – 1% 
Courtyard – 1%

Location Outside Building
Adjacent to building(s) – 25%
Playground – 15%
Parking Lot – 15%
Recreation Courts – 10%
Main Entrance – 10%
On campus – 10%
Athletic Field – 5%
Bus Drop-Off – 5%
Edge of Property – 5%

TIME

Time of Day
During School Day – 93%

Morning Classes – 40%
Lunch – 15%
Afternoon Classes – 14%
Undetermined – 12%
As school is opening – 8%
Before School –4%
Evening – 4% 
Dismissal – 1% 
After School – 1% 
Not in session – 1% 

Day of the Week
Monday – 24%
Friday – 23% 
Tuesday – 19% 
Thursday – 17% 
Wednesday – 16% 
Saturday – 1% 

Years
1985-1989 – 11%
1991-1999 – 23%
2000-2009 – 26%
2010-2020 – 40%

BY STATE

California – 12%
Ohio – 6%
Washington – 5%
Colorado – 4%
Florida – 4%
Illinois – 4%
Maryland – 3%
Michigan – 3%
South Carolina – 3%
Wisconsin – 3%

Arkansas – 2%
Georgia – 2%
Kentucky – 2%
Pennsylvania – 2%
Tennessee – 2%
Texas – 2%
Indiana – 2%
Louisiana – 2%

Minnesota – 2%
Missouri – 2%
Nevada – 2%
New Mexico – 2%
North Carolina – 2%
Oregon – 2%
Virginia – 2%
Wyoming – 2%

Alaska – 1%
Arizona – 1%
Idaho – 1%
Iowa – 1%
Kansas – 1%
Massachusetts – 1%
Mississippi – 1%
Nebraska – 1%

New Hampshire – 1%
New York – 1%
Oklahoma – 1%
South Dakota – 1%
Utah – 1%
Vermont – 1%

SHOOTING THROUGH EXTERIOR OPENINGS

December 13, 2018: Dennis Intermediate School. 14YOM shot out entry door glass.

November 14th, 2017. Rancho Tehama Elementary. Shooter was prevented from entering the school due to a lockdown, so he fired at the windows and doors of the building, wounding five children.

December 14, 2012. Sandy Hook. Shot out main entrance side lite to gain entry.

April 20, 1999. Columbine High School. Attackers shot out the doors at the west entrance. 

March 31, 1998. Oakfield Middle School. 14YOM fired 5 shots into main entrance.

SHOOTING THROUGH INTERIOR OPENINGS

May 18, 2018. Santa Fe High School. The suspect in the Texas school shooting began his attack by firing a shotgun through an art classroom door, shattering a glass pane and sending panicked students to the entryway to block him from getting inside

April 20, 2018. Forest High School. Shooter (former student) fired a shotgun into the bottom of a classroom door striking another student with fragments in the foot.

February 14, 2018. Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School. Shooter fired into numerous classroom doors and vision kits. 

January 20, 2017. West Liberty Salem High School. Shot into classrooms from hallway

Since 1985, there have been 33 documented attacks where shooters have forced their way through *Life Openings to shoot and kill victims. 
*Life Opening is the entire door- includes door, lock, hinges, frame, glass, vision lite kit, adhesives, and sidelights

SHOOTING THROUGH WINDOWS FROM EXTERIOR

December 10, 2019. Sacred Heart School. During shoot out with police, multiple shots struck the school building breaking windows.

April 10, 2007. Spring Water Trail High School. Fired shot at the school from 150 yards away. 
10 students were injured by broken glass when bullets struck the classroom windows

March 22, 2001. Granite Hills High School.  Fired shotgun and .22 rounds at the windows of the building. 4 students were injured by broken glass

April 20, 2001. Monroe City Alternative School. The shooter fired shots into the windows but missed students. Shooter gained entry through another door and fired shots that missed janitor

January 20, 2000. Erwin High School. Shooter fired into the gymnasium.

February 8, 1996. Mid-Peninsula High School. 16 year lured people on to court by throwing money, shot into group.  Shot several bullets into nearby classroom then shot himself.

SRO INTERVENTIONS

In the 112 incidents studies, SRO intervention decreased the duration of incident from 8 minutes to 2 minutes on average. 

December 6, 1999. Fort Gibson Middle School. Shooter fired shots at the crowd outside of the school, tackled by SRO and teacher.

March 22, 2001. Granite Hills High School. Shooter stood outside of school and fired shotgun and .22 rounds at the windows of the building. 4 students were injured by broken glass. A police officer assigned to the school fired at the shooter and arrested him.

August 30, 2006. Orange High School. Shooter fired shots with a semiautomatic rifle at the school building and at students standing outside the building, wounding two students. A school resource officer arrested him when his rifle jammed. Duration of incident was 2 minutes.

August 30, 2010. Sullivan Central High School. 62 year old Vietnam Veteran drove to school where his was a janitor. He entered the school, and pointed a .380 caliber pistol at a student.  Shooter had second loaded handgun with him. The school resource officer pulled her weapon and pointed it at the suspect. For approximately an hour, there was a standoff with both the shooter and the SRO pointing weapons at each other. Two other deputies soon arrived and cornered the shooter. He was eventually shot and killed by police after refusing to drop his weapon.

September 21, 2010. Socastee High School. Shooter was a 15 year old male, former student, who was not known to school officials. Shooter fired a handgun in the SRO’s office when SRO attempted to search his bag. SRO was burned by the gun firing but was not shot. He was able to wrestle the gun away from the shooter. Shooter also had two pipe bombs in his bag. Duration of incident was 2 minutes.

December 13, 2013Arapohoe High School. Shooter walked into school with shotgun, molotov cocktails, and ammunition. Fired 5 shots down hallways killing one student (no relation to shooter). Threw molotov cocktail into library. Confronted by SRO and commit suicide. Duration of incident was 80 seconds.

February 28, 2018. Dalton High School. Shooter was a teacher at the school. He barricaded himself in his classroom and did not let students in. When the principal tried to unlock the door, the shooter told him he had a gun and shot out of the window. No one was shot. The SRO engaged the shooter and convinced him to turn himself in.

March 20, 2018. Great Mills High School. Deputy Blaine Gaskill of the St. Mary’s County Sheriff’s Office is credited with stopping a shooting that left two students wounded. Deputy Gaskill fired one shot after running a distance to confront the shooter. This was his first year as the school SRO. He is also a swat team operator.

April 20, 2018. Forest High School. SRO Deputy Jimmy Long heard a loud bang at 8:39 a.m. and quickly responded. The 19 year old suspect was taken into custody by Deputy Long 3 minutes later.

May 16, 2018. Dixon High School. Shooter fired several shots near the gym, where seniors were engaged in a graduation walk-through. Shooter ran out and was confronted by the SRO (Dixon Police Officer Mark Dallas). They exchanged shots, Shooter received non-lethal wounds and was apprehended.

May 18, 2018. Santa Fe High School. SRO John Barnes was shot in the arm during the active shooter incident. He was the first person to engage the shooter which left 10 people dead.